Proper condensate removal is essential to heat exchanger efficiency and long service life. An explanation of how heat exchangers operate. It introduces the subject of stall, and why and how the best trapping device is selected to maximise system efficiency.

Heat Exchangers and Stall
This tutorial discusses the particular problems associated with the removal of condensate from temperature controlled heat exchange equipment, including the causes, symptoms and effects of ‘stall’.

The Heat Load, Heat Exchanger and Steam Load Relationship
Calculations for heat exchange applications including the design loads and the steam pressure/flowrate requirements.

Oversized Heat Exchangers
Heat exchangers are often bought oversized for the required duty. This tutorial looks at the reasons why, the effects this has and related requirements, such as trap sizing for oversized exchangers.

Example: Selecting the Trap
A fully workedthrough example for calculating stall and selecting a condensate removal solution for a heat exchange application.

The Stall Chart  Constant Flow Secondary  Varying Inlet Temperature  Constant Outlet Temperature
A simple method of calculating stall is to use a stall chart. This tutorial explains the use of a chart to calculate stall for a constant secondary flowrate with a varying inlet temperature.

The Stall Chart  Varying Flow Secondary  Constant Inlet Temperature  Constant Outlet Temperature
Using a chart to calculate stall for a varying secondary flowrate with a constant inlet temperature.

The Stall Chart  Constant Flow Secondary  Constant Inlet Temperature  Varying Outlet Temperature
Using a chart to calculate stall for a constant secondary flowrate with a varying outlet temperature.

Practical Methods of Preventing Stall
This tutorial considers methods of overcoming condensate drainage problems, such as ensuring gravity drainage, installing an automatic pump trap device, or controlling the pressure in the steam space.