Properties of various types of steam are considered, along with basic heat transfer principles and how to calculate consumption rates for process applications. Entropy is tackled in simple terms, removing unnecessary fears often associated with the subject.

Engineering Units
An overview of the units of measurement used in the Steam and Condensate Loop including temperature, pressure, density, volume, heat, work and energy.

What is Steam?
The properties of steam explained here, including the ability of steam under pressure to carry, and then give up, large amounts of energy. Topics include saturated steam tables, dryness fraction and flash steam.

Superheated Steam
An explanation of the properties and uses of superheated steam (such as for electricity generation). Including explanations of the Rankine and Carnot thermodynamic cycles, superheated steam tables and the Mollier (HS) chart.

Steam Quality
Steam should be available at the point of use in the correct quantity, at the correct pressure, clean, dry and free from air and other incondensable gases. This tutorial explains why this is necessary, and how steam quality is assured.

Heat Transfer
Steam is often generated to provide heat transfer to a process. Modes of heat transfer (conduction, convection, radiation) within or between media are explained, together with calculations and other issues such as heat transfer barriers.

Methods of Estimating Steam Consumption
How to calculate steam requirements for flow and nonflow applications. Including warmup, heat losses and running loads.

Measurement of Steam Consumption
Methods of measuring steam consumption, from the very basic to sophisticated flow metering, are explained in this tutorial.

Thermal Rating
Design ratings for items of plant can be both helpful and misleading, as changing any factor can alter the predicted heat output. Also, how to calculate steam load requirements from the kW rating.

Energy Consumption of Tanks and Vats
The heating of liquids in tanks and vats is an important requirement in process industries. There are many types of tank with different uses. Determination of heat requirements, heat transfer and heat loss calculations are all covered in this tutorial.

Heating with Coils and Jackets
Indirect heating of fluids is covered in this tutorial including layouts, control and drainage of coils and jackets, and heat transfer calculations.

Heating Vats and Tanks by Steam Injection
Direct steam injection involves the discharge of steam bubbles into a liquid at a lower temperature to transfer heat. This tutorial explains the process and the methods used, including the relevant heat transfer calculations.

Steam Consumption of Pipes and Air Heaters
Steam will condense and give up its enthalpy of evaporation on the walls of any pipe or tube at a lower temperature. It is not usually possible or necessary to calculate steam consumption exactly. This tutorial allows satisfactory estimates to be made for most practical purposes.

Steam Consumption of Heat Exchangers
Different types of heat exchanger are explained and compared in this tutorial, together with steam consumption calculations and other issues such as the relevance of the starting load.

Steam Consumption of Plant Items
The steam consumption of other common plant items, including heater batteries, calorifiers, drying cylinders, presses and tracer lines.

Entropy  A Basic Understanding
Entropy is a concept some find difficult to grasp, but in truth it does not deserve such notoriety. Look upon Entropy as a road map that connects thermodynamic situations. This tutorial hopes to shed some light on this subject, by approaching it from first principles.

Entropy  Its Practical Use
Entropy can be used to understand thermodynamic applications from first principles. This tutorial gives practical examples of how this can be done.